An important component of the Mathematical Habits of Mind (MHM) is having students work together to solve problems. Students actively engage in providing input and assess their efforts in learning the content. They construct viable arguments, communicate their reasoning, and critique the reasoning of others (MHM3). The role of the teacher is to guide students toward desired learning outcomes. The cooperative learning model is an example of implicit instruction and involves students working either as partners or in mixed-ability groups to complete specific tasks. It assists teachers in addressing the needs of diverse student populations.  The teacher presents the group with a problem or a task and sets up the student activities. While the students work together to complete the task, the teacher monitors progress and assists student groups when necessary (Charles and Senter 2012; Burden and Byrd 2009).

Classroom Application


Burden, Paul R., and David M. Byrd.  2009. Methods for Effective Teaching: Meeting the Needs of All Students. 5th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Charles, C. M., and Gail W. Senter. 2012. Elementary Classroom Management. 6thed. Boston: Pearson.