All West Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates content standards, learning skills, and technology tools. Students in fifth grade will continue enhancing skills in a developmentally-appropriate progression of standards. In fifth grade, students should be exposed to texts that fall in the 740-1010 Lexile range in order to meet college- and career-readiness expectations. By the end of the programmatic level (grade 5) and over the course of the entire instructional day, the distribution of text types should include 50% literary and 50% informational, and writing types should be 30% argumentative, 35% informative, and 35% narrative.

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Early Learning Foundations

ELA.5.I

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

  • Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
  • Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Grade 4

ELA.4.I

Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

  • Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
  • Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression.
  • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

Grade 5

ELA.5.I
Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

  • Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
  • Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
  • Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

ELA.5.II

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

  • Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

Grade 4

ELA.4.II

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

  • Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

Grade-1

ELA.5.II

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

  • Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

Reading

ELA.5.1

Quote accurately from a literary text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

ELA.5.2

Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in a literary text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.

ELA.5.3

Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the literary text (e.g., how characters interact).

ELA.5.4

Quote accurately from an informational text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

ELA.5.5

Determine two or more main ideas of an informational text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.

ELA.5.6

Using an informational text, explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

Grade 4

ELA.4.1

Refer to details and examples in a literary text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

ELA.4.2

Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the literary text; summarize the text.

ELA.4.3

Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the literary text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).

ELA.4.4

Refer to details and examples in an informational text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

ELA.4.5

Determine the main idea of an informational text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.

ELA.4.6

Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the informational text.

Grade 5

ELA.5.1
Quote accurately from a literary text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
ELA.5.2
Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in a literary text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.
ELA.5.3
Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the literary text (e.g., how characters interact).
ELA.5.4
Quote accurately from an informational text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
ELA.5.5
Determine two or more main ideas of an informational text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.
ELA.5.6
Using an informational text, explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

Grade 6

ELA.6.1

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

ELA.6.2

Determine a theme or central idea of a literary text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

ELA.6.3

Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of events and how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

ELA.6.4

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

ELA.6.5

Determine a central idea of an informational text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

ELA.6.6

Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and developed in an informational text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).

ELA.5.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a literary text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes.

ELA.5.8

Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together in a literary text to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.

ELA.5.9

Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described in a literary text.

ELA.5.10

Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in an informational text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.

ELA.5.11

Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, and problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more informational texts.

ELA.5.12

Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent in informational texts.

Grade 4

ELA.4.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a literary text, including words that allude to significant characters such as those found in mythology (e.g., herculean).

ELA.4.8

Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose; refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, and meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, and stage directions) when writing or speaking about a literary text.

ELA.4.9

Compare and contrast the point of view from which different literary texts are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations.

ELA.4.10

Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in an informational text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.

ELA.4.11

Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, or problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in all or part of an informational text.

ELA.4.12

Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in the focus and information provided in these informational texts.

Grade 5

ELA.5.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a literary text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes.

ELA.5.8

Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together in a literary text to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.

ELA.5.9

Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described in a literary text.

ELA.5.10

Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in an informational text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.

ELA.5.11

Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, and problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more informational texts.

ELA.5.12

Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent in informational texts.

Grade 6

ELA.6.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a literary text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

ELA.6.8

Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a literary text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.

ELA.6.9

Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a literary text.

ELA.6.10

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings

ELA.6.11

Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of an informational text and contributes to the development of the ideas.

ELA.6.12

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in an informational text and explain how it is communicated in the text.

ELA.5.13

Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a literary text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, and/or poem).

ELA.5.14

Compare and contrast stories in literary texts of the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics.

ELA.5.15

Draw on information from multiple print or digital informational sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.

ELA.5.16

Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in an informational text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s).

ELA.5.17

Integrate information from several informational texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Grade 4

ELA.4.13

Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the literary text, identifying where specific descriptions and directions in the text are reflected in the visual or oral presentation.

ELA.4.14

Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, traditional literature, and literary text from different cultures.

ELA.4.15

Interpret information presented visually orally or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the informational text in which it appears.

ELA.4.16

Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in an informational text.

ELA.4.17

Integrate information from two informational texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Grade 5

ELA.5.13

Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a literary text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, and/or poem).

ELA.5.14

Compare and contrast stories in literary texts of the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics.

ELA.5.15

Draw on information from multiple print or digital informational sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.

ELA.5.16

Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in an informational text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s).

ELA.5.17

Integrate information from several informational texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Grade 6

ELA.6.13

Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the literary text, including contrasting what is “seen” and “heard” when reading the text to what is perceived when listening or watching.

ELA.6.14

Compare and contrast literary texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories, poems, historical novels, and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.

ELA.6.15

Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually and/or quantitatively) and in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.

ELA.6.16

Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in an informational text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

ELA.6.17

Compare and contrast two authors’ presentations of events (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person) in informational text.

ELA.5.18
By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity range independently and proficiently.
ELA.5.19
By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity range independently and proficiently.

Grade 4

ELA.4.18

By the end of the year read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4–5 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

ELA.4.19

By the end of the year read and comprehend informational texts, including social studies, science and technical texts, in the grades 4–5 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade 5

ELA.5.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity range independently and proficiently.

ELA.5.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity range independently and proficiently.

Grade 6

ELA.6.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 6–8 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

ELA.6.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend nonfiction and other informational texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Writing

ELA.5.20

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

  • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
  • Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
  • Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently and specifically).
  • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

ELA.5.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

  • Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation, and focus and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
  • Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast and especially).
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.

ELA.5.22

Write a narrative to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

  • Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
  • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events.
  • Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Grade 4

ELA.4.20

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

  • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
  • Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.
  • Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, or in addition).
  • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

ELA.4.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

  • Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
  • Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, or because).
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.

ELA.4.22

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

  • Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
  • Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
  • Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.
  • Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Grade 5

ELA.5.20

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

  • Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.
  • Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.
  • Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently and specifically).
  • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

ELA.5.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

  • Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation, and focus and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.
  • Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast and especially).
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.

ELA.5.22

Write a narrative to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

  • Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
  • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events.
  • Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

ELA.5.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.5.24

With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards up to and including grade 5.)

ELA.5.25

With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type accurately.

Grade 4

ELA.4.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.4.24

With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards up to and including grade 4.)

ELA.4.25

With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills.

Grade 5

ELA.5.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.5.24

With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards up to and including grade 5.)

ELA.5.25

With some guidance and support from adults, use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type accurately.

ELA.5.26

Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

ELA.5.27

Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work and provide a list of sources.

ELA.5.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]”).
  • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]”).

(Begins in grade 4.)

Grade 4

ELA.4.26

Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

ELA.4.27

Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information and provide a list of sources.

ELA.4.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “describe in depth a character, setting or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions].”).
  • Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.”).

Grade 5

ELA.5.26
Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
ELA.5.27
Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work and provide a list of sources.
ELA.5.28
Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or a drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g., how characters interact]”).
  • Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g., “explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]”).

ELA.5.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 4

ELA.4.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade 5

ELA.5.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Speaking & Listening

ELA.5.30

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly.

  • Come to discussions prepared having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
  • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
  • Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others.
  • Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions.

ELA.5.31

Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

ELA.5.32

Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence.

Grade 4

ELA.4.30

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
  • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
  • Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.
  • Review the key ideas expressed and explain ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.

ELA.4.31

Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

ELA.4.32

Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to support particular points

Grade 5

ELA.5.30

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly.

  • Come to discussions prepared having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
  • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
  • Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others.
  • Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions.

ELA.5.31

Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

ELA.5.32

Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence.

Grade 6

ELA.6.30

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
  • Follow rules for shared discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
  • Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.
  • Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.

ELA.6.31

Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and/or orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.

ELA.6.32

Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

ELA.5.33

Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

ELA.5.34

Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics and/or sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

ELA.5.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 5 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Grade 4

ELA.4.33

Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

ELA.4.34

Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

ELA.4.35

Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 4 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Grade 5

ELA.5.33

Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

ELA.5.34

Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics and/or sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

ELA.5.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 5 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Grade 6

ELA.6.33

Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details, to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

ELA.6.34

Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, and/or sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.

ELA.6.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 6 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Language

ELA.5.36
Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
  • Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
  • Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
  • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
  • Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or and neither/nor).
ELA.5.37
Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation and spelling when writing.

  • Use punctuation to separate items in a series.
  • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
  • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you.), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
  • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
  • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Grade 4

ELA.4.36
Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, or that) and relative adverbs (where, when, or why,).
  • Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.
  • Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, or must) to convey various conditions.
  • Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).
  • Form and use prepositional phrases.
  • Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.
  • Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, and two; there and their).
ELA.4.37
Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Use correct capitalization.
  • Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.
  • Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.
  • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Grade 5

ELA.5.36
Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
  • Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
  • Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
  • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
  • Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or and neither/nor).
ELA.5.37
Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation and spelling when writing.

  • Use punctuation to separate items in a series.
  • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
  • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you.), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
  • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
  • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Grade 6

ELA.6.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, or possessive).
  • Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself or ourselves).
  • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
  • Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
  • Recognize variations from Standard English in one’s own and others’ writing and speaking; identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.

ELA.6.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, or dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
  • Spell correctly.

ELA.5.38

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

  • Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
  • Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g., dialects and/or registers) used in stories, dramas, or poems

Grade 4

ELA.4.38

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

  • Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.
  • Choose punctuation for effect.
  • Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).

Grade 5

ELA.5.38

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

  • Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
  • Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g., dialects and/or registers) used in stories, dramas, or poems

Grade 6

ELA.6.38

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

  • Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
  • Maintain consistency in style and tone.

ELA.5.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph and photosynthesis).
  • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

ELA.5.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.
  • Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
  • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, and homographs) to better understand each of the words.

ELA.5.41

Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, and in addition).

Grade 4

ELA.4.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, and autograph).
  • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

ELA.4.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.
  • Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
  • Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).

ELA.4.41

Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, and stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).

Grade 5

ELA.5.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph and photosynthesis).
  • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

ELA.5.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.
  • Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
  • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, and homographs) to better understand each of the words.

ELA.5.41

Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, and in addition).

Grade 6

ELA.6.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, and audible).
  • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
  • Verify the initial determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

ELA.6.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.
  • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, or item/category) to better understand each of the words.
  • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, frugal, and thrifty).

ELA.6.41

Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.