All West Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates content standards and mathematical habits of mind. Students in kindergarten will focus on two critical areas: (1) representing and comparing whole numbers, initially with sets of objects; (2) describing shapes and space. Mathematical habits of mind, which should be integrated in these content areas, include: making sense of problems and persevering in solving them, reasoning abstractly and quantitatively; constructing viable arguments and critiquing the reasoning of others; modeling with mathematics; using appropriate tools strategically; attending to precision, looking for and making use of structure; and looking for and expressing regularity in repeated reasoning. The skill progressions begin in kindergarten as a foundational understanding of numeracy.

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### Counting and Cardinality

M.K.1

Count to 100 by ones and by tens.

M.K.2

Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).

M.K.3

Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

#### Kindergarten

M.K.1

Count to 100 by ones and by tens.

M.K.2

Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).

M.K.3

Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

M.K.4

Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

- When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.
- Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted and the number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.
- Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.

M.K.5

Count to answer questions (e.g., “How many?”) about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1–20, count out that many objects.

#### Kindergarten

M.K.4

Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

- When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.
- Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted and the number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.
- Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.

M.K.5

Count to answer questions (e.g., “How many?”) about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1–20, count out that many objects.

M.K.6

Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group (e.g., by using matching and counting strategies).

M.K.7

Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals.

#### Kindergarten

M.K.6

Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group (e.g., by using matching and counting strategies).

M.K.7

Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals.

### Operations and Algebraic Thinking

M.K.8

Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), and acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.

M.K.9

Solve addition and subtraction word problems and add and subtract within 10 by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

M.K.10

Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).

M.K.11

For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.

M.K.12

Fluently add and subtract within 5.

#### Kindergarten

M.K.8

Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), and acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.

M.K.9

Solve addition and subtraction word problems and add and subtract within 10 by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

M.K.10

Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).

M.K.11

For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.

M.K.12

Fluently add and subtract within 5.

### Number and Operations in Base Ten

M.K.13

Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones (one ten) and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.

#### Kindergarten

M.K.13

Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones (one ten) and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.

### Measurement and Data

M.K.14

Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight and describe several measurable attributes of a single object.

M.K.15

Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of” or “less of” the attribute, and describe the difference.

#### Kindergarten

M.K.14

Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight and describe several measurable attributes of a single object.

M.K.15

Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of” or “less of” the attribute, and describe the difference.

M.K.16

Classify objects into given categories, count the numbers of objects in each category, and sort the categories by count. Category counts should be limited to less than or equal to 10. (e.g., Identify coins and sort them into groups of 5s or 10s.)

#### Kindergarten

M.K.16

Classify objects into given categories, count the numbers of objects in each category, and sort the categories by count. Category counts should be limited to less than or equal to 10. (e.g., Identify coins and sort them into groups of 5s or 10s.)

### Geometry

M.K.17

Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind and next to.

M.K.18

Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size.

M.K.19

Through the use of real-life objects, identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, “flat”) or three-dimensional (“solid”).

#### Kindergarten

M.K.17

Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind and next to.

M.K.18

Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size.

M.K.19

Through the use of real-life objects, identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, “flat”) or three-dimensional (“solid”).

M.K.20

Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/“corners”), and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length).

M.K.21

Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.

M.K.22

Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes (e.g., “Can these two triangles, with full sides touching, join to make a rectangle?”).

#### Kindergarten

M.K.20

Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/“corners”), and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length).

M.K.21

Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.

M.K.22

Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes (e.g., “Can these two triangles, with full sides touching, join to make a rectangle?”).