ELA – Grade-10 Standards

ELA – Grade-10 Standards2018-03-22T10:07:23+00:00

All West Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates content standards, learning skills, and technology tools. Students in tenth grade will continue enhancing skills in a developmentally-appropriate progression of standards. In grades 9-10, students should be exposed to texts that fall in the 1050-1185 Lexile range in order to meet college- and career-readiness expectations. By the end of the programmatic level (grade 12) and over the course of the entire instructional day, the distribution of text types should shift to 30% literary and 70% informational, and writing types should shift to 40% argumentative, 40% informative, and 20% narrative.

Reading

ELA.10.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, recognizing when the text leaves matters uncertain.

ELA.10.2

Determine two themes or central ideas of a literary text and analyze in detail their development over the course of the literary text, including how they emerge and are shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the literary text.

ELA.10.3

Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a literary text, interact with other characters, and affect the plot or develop the theme.

ELA.10.4

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the informational text, recognizing when the text leaves matters uncertain.

ELA.10.5

Determine two central ideas of an informational text and analyze their development over the course of the informational text, including how they emerge and are shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the informational text.

ELA.10.6

Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of complex ideas or events in informational texts, including the order in which the points are made, how they are developed, and how they interact.

Grade-9

ELA.9.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the literary text.

ELA.9.2

Determine a theme or central idea of a literary text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the literary text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the literary text.

ELA.9.3

Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a literary text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.

ELA.9.4

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the informational text.

ELA.9.5

Determine a central idea of an informational text and analyze its development over the course of the informational text, including how it is developed and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the informational text.

ELA.9.6

Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events in an informational text, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

Grade-10

ELA.10.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, recognizing when the text leaves matters uncertain.

ELA.10.2

Determine two themes or central ideas of a literary text and analyze in detail their development over the course of the literary text, including how they emerge and are shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the literary text.

ELA.10.3

Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a literary text, interact with other characters, and affect the plot or develop the theme.

ELA.10.4

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the informational text, recognizing when the text leaves matters uncertain.

ELA.10.5

Determine two central ideas of an informational text and analyze their development over the course of the informational text, including how they emerge and are shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the informational text.

ELA.10.6

Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of complex ideas or events in informational texts, including the order in which the points are made, how they are developed, and how they interact.

Grade-11

ELA.11.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

ELA.11.2

Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a literary text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account; provide an objective summary of the text.

ELA.11.3

Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e.g., where a story is set, how the action is ordered, and/or how the characters are introduced and developed).

ELA.11.4

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

ELA.11.5

Determine two or more central ideas of an informational text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text.

ELA.11.6

Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals, ideas, or events interact and develop over the course of the informational text.

ELA.10.7

Determine the meaning of multiple-meaning words and phrases as they are used in a literary text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place or how it sets a formal or informal tone).

ELA.10.8

Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a literary text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing or flashbacks) contribute to its overall structure and create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.

ELA.10.9

Analyze and defend a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.

ELA.10.10

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze and defend the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g. how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).

ELA.10.11

Analyze and defend in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of an informational text (e.g., a section or chapter).

ELA.10.12

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in an informational text and evaluate how the author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

Grade-9

ELA.9.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the literary text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place or how it sets a formal or informal tone).

ELA.9.8

Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a literary text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing or flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.

ELA.9.9

Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.

ELA.9.10

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).

ELA.9.11

Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of an informational text (e.g., a section or chapter).

ELA.9.12

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in an informational text and analyze how the author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

Grade-10

ELA.10.7

Determine the meaning of multiple-meaning words and phrases as they are used in a literary text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place or how it sets a formal or informal tone).

ELA.10.8

Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a literary text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing or flashbacks) contribute to its overall structure and create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.

ELA.10.9

Analyze and defend a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.

ELA.10.10

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze and defend the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g. how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).

ELA.10.11

Analyze and defend in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of an informational text (e.g., a section or chapter).

ELA.10.12

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in an informational text and evaluate how the author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

Grade-11

ELA.11.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the literary text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh, engaging, or beautiful. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors.)

ELA.11.8

Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a literary text (e.g., the choice of where to begin or end a story, or the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact.

ELA.11.9

Analyze a case in which grasping a point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in a literary text from what is really meant (e.g., satire, sarcasm, irony, or understatement).

ELA.11.10

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e.g., how Madison defines “faction” in Federalist No. 10).

ELA.11.11

In informational text, analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging.

ELA.11.12

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in an informational text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective, analyzing how style and content contribute to the power, persuasiveness, or beauty of the text.

ELA.10.13

Analyze the representation, in a literary text, of a subject or a key scene in two or more different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment and why (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).

ELA.10.14

Analyze and defend how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific literary work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible, or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).

ELA.10.15

Analyze and defend various accounts of a subject told in different mediums of informational texts (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

ELA.10.16

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims and counterclaims in an informational text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

ELA.10.17

Analyze and defend influential U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g. Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech or King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”), including how they address related themes and concepts.

Grade-9

ELA.9.13

Analyze the representation, in a literary text, of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).

ELA.9.14

Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific literary work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible, or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).

ELA.9.15

Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums of informational texts (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

ELA.9.16

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in an informational text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

ELA.9.17

Analyze influential U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address or The Gettysburg Address), including how they address related themes and concepts.

Grade-10

ELA.10.13

Analyze the representation, in a literary text, of a subject or a key scene in two or more different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment and why (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).

ELA.10.14

Analyze and defend how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific literary work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible, or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).

ELA.10.15

Analyze and defend various accounts of a subject told in different mediums of informational texts (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

ELA.10.16

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims and counterclaims in an informational text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

ELA.10.17

Analyze and defend influential U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g. Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech or King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”), including how they address related themes and concepts.

Grade-11

ELA.11.13

Analyze multiple interpretations of a story, drama, or poem (e.g., recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry), evaluating how each version interprets the source text. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist.)

ELA.11.14

Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth-, and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more literary texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics.

ELA.11.15

Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually and/or quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem.

ELA.11.16

Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in influential U.S. informational texts, including the application of constitutional principles (e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises, purposes, and arguments in works of public advocacy (e.g., The Federalist Papers or presidential addresses).

ELA.11.17

Analyze seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century foundational U.S. informational documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., The Declaration of Independence, the Preamble to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their themes, purposes, and rhetorical features.

ELA.10.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, independently and proficiently, at the high end of the grade 9-10 text complexity range.

ELA.10.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend nonfiction and other informational texts, independently and proficiently, at the high end of the grade 9-10 text complexity range.

Grade-9

ELA.9.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grade 9-10 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

ELA.9.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend nonfiction and other informational texts in the grades 9-10 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade-10

ELA.10.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, independently and proficiently, at the high end of the grade 9-10 text complexity range.

ELA.10.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend nonfiction and other informational texts, independently and proficiently, at the high end of the grade 9-10 text complexity range.

Grade-11

ELA.11.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 11–12 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

ELA.11.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend nonfiction and other informational texts in the grades 11-12 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Writing

ELA.10.20

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

  • Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
  • Use a variety of words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

ELA.10.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

  • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to analyze important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures and/or tables), and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, significant, and sufficient facts; extended definitions; concrete details, quotations, or other information; and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  • Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

ELA.10.22

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

  • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build upon a particular outcome.
  • Use precise words and phrases, effective details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Grade-9

ELA.9.20

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

  • Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
  • Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

ELA.9.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

  • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures and/or tables), and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  • Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

ELA.9.22

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

  • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences events and/or characters.
  • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
  • Use precise words and phrases, effective details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Grade-10

ELA.10.20

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

  • Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
  • Use a variety of words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

ELA.10.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

  • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to analyze important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures and/or tables), and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, significant, and sufficient facts; extended definitions; concrete details, quotations, or other information; and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  • Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

ELA.10.22

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

  • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build upon a particular outcome.
  • Use precise words and phrases, effective details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Grade-11

ELA.11.20

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

  • Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s); establish the significance of the claim(s); distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly, supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level, concerns, values, and possible biases.
  • Use words, phrases, and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

ELA.11.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

  • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures and/or tables), and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
  • Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  • Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language, domain-specific vocabulary, and techniques such as metaphor, simile, and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

ELA.11.22

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

  • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation and its significance, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e.g., a sense of mystery, suspense, growth, or resolution).
  • Use precise words and phrases, effective details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

ELA.10.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.10.24

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of all Language standards up to and including grade 10.)

ELA.10.25

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically in response to ongoing feedback.

Grade-9

ELA.9.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.9.24

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of all Language standards up to and including grade 9.)

ELA.9.25

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

Grade-10

ELA.10.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.10.24

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of all Language standards up to and including grade 10.)

ELA.10.25

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically in response to ongoing feedback.

Grade-11

ELA.11.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.11.24

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of all Language standards up to and including grade 11).

ELA.11.25

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback, including new arguments or information.

ELA.10.26

Conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

ELA.10.27

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in terms of task, purpose, and audience and in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation (e.g., MLA or APA).

ELA.10.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
  • Apply grade 10 Reading standards to nonfiction and other informational texts (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).

Grade-9

ELA.9.26

Conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

ELA.9.27

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation (e.g., MLA or APA).

ELA.9.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 9 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible, or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
  • Apply grade 9 Reading standards to nonfiction and other informational texts (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).

Grade-10

ELA.10.26

Conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

ELA.10.27

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in terms of task, purpose, and audience and in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation (e.g., MLA or APA).

ELA.10.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
  • Apply grade 10 Reading standards to nonfiction and other informational texts (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).

Grade-11

ELA.11.26

Conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

ELA.11.27

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation (e.g., MLA or APA).

ELA.11.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 11 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-, nineteenth-, and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature, including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics”).
  • Apply grade 11 Reading standards to nonfiction and other informational texts (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in influential U.S. texts, including the application of constitutional principles [e.g., in U.S. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises, purposes and arguments in works of public advocacy [e.g., The Federalist Papers or presidential addresses]”).

ELA.10.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade-9

ELA.9.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade-10

ELA.10.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade-11

ELA.11.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Speaking & Listening

ELA.10.30

Initiate and effectively participate in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly and persuasively.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
  • Work with peers to set rules for democratic, collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views); establish clear goals, deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
  • Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others’ perspectives into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
  • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; analyze points of agreement and disagreement and, when warranted, qualify or justify views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

ELA.10.31

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and/or orally), evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source in order to make decisions and solve problems.

ELA.10.32

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

Grade-9

ELA.9.30

Initiate and effectively participate in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 9 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly and persuasively.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
  • Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, or presentation of alternate views); set clear goals, deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
  • Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
  • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; summarize points of agreement and disagreement and, when warranted, qualify or justify views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

ELA.9.31

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and/or orally), evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.

ELA.9.32

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

Grade-10

ELA.10.30

Initiate and effectively participate in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly and persuasively.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
  • Work with peers to set rules for democratic, collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views); establish clear goals, deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
  • Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others’ perspectives into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
  • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; analyze points of agreement and disagreement and, when warranted, qualify or justify views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

ELA.10.31

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and/or orally), evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source in order to make decisions and solve problems.

ELA.10.32

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

Grade-11

ELA.11.30

Initiate and effectively participate in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 11 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly and persuasively.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
  • Work with peers to promote civil, democratic discussions and decision-making; establish clear goals, deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
  • Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence; ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue; clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions; and promote divergent and creative perspectives.
  • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; synthesize comments, claims, and evidence made on all sides of an issue; resolve contradictions when possible; and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.

ELA.11.31

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and/or orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems, evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data.

ELA.11.32

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing the stance, premises, links among ideas, word choice, points of emphasis, and tone used.

ELA.10.33

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

ELA.10.34

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

ELA.10.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 10 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Grade-9

ELA.9.33

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

ELA.9.34

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

ELA.9.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 9 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Grade-10

ELA.10.33

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

ELA.10.34

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

ELA.10.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 10 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Grade-11

ELA.11.33

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning; alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and a range of formal and informal tasks.

ELA.11.34

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

ELA.11.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating a command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 11 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Language

ELA.10.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, or absolute) and clauses (independent and dependent; noun, relative, and adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.

ELA.10.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
  • Spell correctly.

Grade-9

ELA.9.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Use parallel structure.
  • Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, participial, prepositional, and absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent, noun, relative, and adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations

ELA.9.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
  • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
  • Spell correctly.

Grade-10

ELA.10.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, or absolute) and clauses (independent and dependent; noun, relative, and adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.

ELA.10.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
  • Spell correctly.

Grade-11

ELA.11.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention, can change over time, and is sometimes contested.
  • Resolve issues of complex or contested usage, consulting references (e.g., Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary of English Usage or Garner’s Modern American Usage) as needed.

ELA.11.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Observe hyphenation conventions.
  • Spell correctly.

ELA.10.38

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

  • Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook or APA Handbook) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.

Grade-9

ELA.9.38

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

  • Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook or APA Handbook) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.

Grade-10

ELA.10.38

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

  • Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook or APA Handbook) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.

Grade-11

ELA.11.38

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

  • Vary syntax for effect by consulting references (e.g., Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed; apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading.

ELA.10.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph or text or a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical, advocate, or advocacy).
  • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, part of speech, or etymology.
  • Verify the initial determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

ELA.10.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism or oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
  • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

ELA.10.41

Acquire and accurately use general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college- and career-readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade-9

ELA.9.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 9 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph or text or a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical, advocate, or advocacy).
  • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
  • Verify the initial determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

ELA.9.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism or oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
  • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

ELA.9.41

Acquire and accurately use general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college- and career-readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade-10

ELA.10.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph or text or a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical, advocate, or advocacy).
  • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, part of speech, or etymology.
  • Verify the initial determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

ELA.10.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism or oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
  • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

ELA.10.41

Acquire and accurately use general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college- and career-readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade-11

ELA.11.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 11 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., conceive, conception, or conceivable).
  • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, its etymology, or its standard usage.
  • Verify the initial determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

ELA.11.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., hyperbole or paradox) in context and analyze their role in the text.
  • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

ELA.11.41

Acquire and accurately use general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college- and career-readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Teaching Resources