All West Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates content standards, learning skills, and technology tools. Students in sixth grade will continue enhancing skills through a developmentally-appropriate progression of standards. In grades 6-8, students should be exposed to texts that fall in the 926-1185 Lexile range in order to meet college- and career-readiness expectations. By the end of the programmatic level (grade 8) and over the course of the entire instructional day, the distribution of text types should shift to 45% literary and 55% informational, and writing types should shift to 35% argumentative, 35% informative, and 30% narrative.

Reading

ELA.6.1

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

ELA.6.2

Determine a theme or central idea of a literary text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

ELA.6.3

Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of events and how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

ELA.6.4

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

ELA.6.5

Determine a central idea of an informational text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

ELA.6.6

Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and developed in an informational text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).

Grade-5

ELA.5.1

Quote accurately from a literary text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

ELA.5.2

Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in a literary text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.

ELA.5.3

Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the literary text (e.g., how characters interact).

ELA.5.4

Quote accurately from an informational text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

ELA.5.5

Determine two or more main ideas of an informational text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.

ELA.5.6

Using an informational text, explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

Grade-6

ELA.6.1

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

ELA.6.2

Determine a theme or central idea of a literary text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

ELA.6.3

Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of events and how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution.

ELA.6.4

Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

ELA.6.5

Determine a central idea of an informational text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

ELA.6.6

Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and developed in an informational text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).

Grade-7

ELA.7.1

Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

ELA.7.2

Determine a theme or central idea of a literary text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.

ELA.7.3

Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how setting shapes the characters or plot).

ELA.7.4

Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

ELA.7.5

Determine two or more central ideas in an informational text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text.

ELA.7.6

Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in an informational text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events).

ELA.6.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a literary text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

ELA.6.8

Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a literary text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.

ELA.6.9

Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a literary text.

ELA.6.10

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings

ELA.6.11

Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of an informational text and contributes to the development of the ideas.

ELA.6.12

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in an informational text and explain how it is communicated in the text.

Grade-5

ELA.5.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a literary text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes.

ELA.5.8

Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together in a literary text to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.

ELA.5.9

Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described in a literary text.

ELA.5.10

Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in an informational text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.

ELA.5.11

Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, and problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more informational texts.

ELA.5.12

Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent in informational texts.

Grade-6

ELA.6.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a literary text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

ELA.6.8

Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a literary text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.

ELA.6.9

Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a literary text.

ELA.6.10

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings

ELA.6.11

Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of an informational text and contributes to the development of the ideas.

ELA.6.12

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in an informational text and explain how it is communicated in the text.

Grade-7

ELA.7.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a literary text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama.

ELA.7.8

Analyze how a drama’s or poem’s form or structure (e.g., soliloquy or sonnet) contributes to its meaning.

ELA.7.9

Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a literary text.

ELA.7.10

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

ELA.7.11

Analyze the structure an author uses to organize an informational text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas

ELA.7.12

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in an informational text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others.

ELA.6.13

Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the literary text, including contrasting what is “seen” and “heard” when reading the text to what is perceived when listening or watching.

ELA.6.14

Compare and contrast literary texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories, poems, historical novels, and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.

ELA.6.15

Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually and/or quantitatively) and in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.

ELA.6.16

Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in an informational text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

ELA.6.17

Compare and contrast two authors’ presentations of events (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person) in informational text.

Grade-5

ELA.5.13

Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a literary text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, and/or poem).

ELA.5.14

Compare and contrast stories in literary texts of the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics.

ELA.5.15

Draw on information from multiple print or digital informational sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.

ELA.5.16

Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in an informational text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s).

ELA.5.17

Integrate information from several informational texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Grade-6

ELA.6.13

Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the literary text, including contrasting what is “seen” and “heard” when reading the text to what is perceived when listening or watching.

ELA.6.14

Compare and contrast literary texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories, poems, historical novels, and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics.

ELA.6.15

Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually and/or quantitatively) and in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue.

ELA.6.16

Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in an informational text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

ELA.6.17

Compare and contrast two authors’ presentations of events (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person) in informational text.

Grade-7

ELA.7.13

Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film).

ELA.7.14

Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history.

ELA.7.15

Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the informational text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the power of the words).

ELA.7.16

Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in an informational text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims.

ELA.7.17

Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts.

ELA.6.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 6–8 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

ELA.6.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend nonfiction and other informational texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade-5

ELA.5.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity range independently and proficiently.

ELA.5.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity range independently and proficiently.

Grade-6

ELA.6.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 6–8 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

ELA.6.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend nonfiction and other informational texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade-7

ELA.7.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 6–8 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

ELA.7.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend nonfiction and other informational texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Writing

ELA.6.20

Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

  • Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
  • Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  • Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.

ELA.6.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

  • Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts or tables), and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
  • Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented

ELA.6.22

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

  • Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
  • Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Grade-6

ELA.6.20

Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

  • Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
  • Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  • Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.

ELA.6.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

  • Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts or tables), and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
  • Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented

ELA.6.22

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

  • Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
  • Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

ELA.6.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.6.24

With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards up to and including grade 6.)

ELA.6.25

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type efficiently and accurately.

Grade-6

ELA.6.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.6.24

With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards up to and including grade 6.)

ELA.6.25

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type efficiently and accurately.

ELA.6.26

Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.

ELA.6.27

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.

ELA.6.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories, poems, historical novels, and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics”).
  • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to nonfiction and other informational texts (e.g., “trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not”).

Grade-6

ELA.6.26

Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.

ELA.6.27

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.

ELA.6.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories, poems, historical novels, and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics”).
  • Apply grade 6 Reading standards to nonfiction and other informational texts (e.g., “trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not”).

ELA.6.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade-6

ELA.6.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Speaking & Listening

ELA.6.30

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
  • Follow rules for shared discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
  • Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.
  • Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.

ELA.6.31

Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and/or orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.

ELA.6.32

Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

Grade-5

ELA.5.30

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly.

  • Come to discussions prepared having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
  • Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.
  • Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others.
  • Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions.

ELA.5.31

Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

ELA.5.32

Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence.

Grade-6

ELA.6.30

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
  • Follow rules for shared discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
  • Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.
  • Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.

ELA.6.31

Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and/or orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.

ELA.6.32

Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

Grade-7

ELA.7.30

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
  • Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
  • Pose questions that elicit elaboration, and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed.
  • Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, modify former views

ELA.7.31

Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and/or orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study.

ELA.7.32

Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence

ELA.6.33

Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details, to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

ELA.6.34

Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, and/or sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.

ELA.6.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 6 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Grade-5

ELA.5.33

Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

ELA.5.34

Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics and/or sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

ELA.5.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation. (See grade 5 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Grade-6

ELA.6.33

Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details, to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

ELA.6.34

Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, and/or sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.

ELA.6.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 6 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Grade-7

ELA.7.33

Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

ELA.7.34

Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points.

ELA.7.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 7 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Language

ELA.6.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, or possessive).
  • Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself or ourselves).
  • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
  • Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
  • Recognize variations from Standard English in one’s own and others’ writing and speaking; identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.

ELA.6.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, or dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
  • Spell correctly.

Grade-5

ELA.5.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.
  • Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.
  • Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.
  • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.
  • Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or and neither/nor).

ELA.5.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation and spelling when writing.

  • Use punctuation to separate items in a series.
  • Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.
  • Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you.), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).
  • Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.
  • Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Grade-6

ELA.6.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, or possessive).
  • Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself or ourselves).
  • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
  • Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
  • Recognize variations from Standard English in one’s own and others’ writing and speaking; identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.

ELA.6.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, or dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
  • Spell correctly.

Grade-7

ELA.7.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences.
  • Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.
  • Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.

ELA.7.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie.).
  • Spell correctly.

ELA.6.38

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

  • Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
  • Maintain consistency in style and tone.

Grade-5

ELA.5.38

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

  • Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
  • Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g., dialects and/or registers) used in stories, dramas, or poems

Grade-6

ELA.6.38

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

  • Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
  • Maintain consistency in style and tone.

Grade-7

ELA.7.38

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

  • Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.

ELA.6.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, and audible).
  • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
  • Verify the initial determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

ELA.6.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.
  • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, or item/category) to better understand each of the words.
  • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, frugal, and thrifty).

ELA.6.41

Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade-5

ELA.5.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph and photosynthesis).
  • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

ELA.5.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.
  • Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.
  • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, and homographs) to better understand each of the words.

ELA.5.41

Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, and in addition).

Grade-6

ELA.6.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, and audible).
  • Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
  • Verify the initial determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

ELA.6.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.
  • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, or item/category) to better understand each of the words.
  • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, frugal, and thrifty).

ELA.6.41

Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade-7

ELA.7.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 7 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph or a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose, or rebel).
  • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
  • Verify the initial determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

ELA.7.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., literary or mythological allusions) in context.
  • Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym/antonym or analogy) to better understand each of the words.
  • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, or condescending).

ELA.7.41

Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Teaching Resources