All West Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates content standards, learning skills, and technology tools. Students in ninth grade will continue enhancing skills in a developmentally-appropriate progression of standards. In grades 9-10, students should be exposed to texts that fall in the 1050-1185 Lexile range in order to meet college- and career-readiness expectations. By the end of the programmatic level (grade 12) and over the course of the entire instructional day, the distribution of text types should shift to 30% literary and 70% informational, and writing types should shift to 40% argumentative, 40% informative, and 20% narrative.

Reading

ELA.9.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the literary text.

ELA.9.2

Determine a theme or central idea of a literary text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the literary text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the literary text.

ELA.9.3

Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a literary text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.

ELA.9.4

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the informational text.

ELA.9.5

Determine a central idea of an informational text and analyze its development over the course of the informational text, including how it is developed and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the informational text.

ELA.9.6

Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events in an informational text, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

Grade-8

ELA.8.1

Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

ELA.8.2

Determine a theme or central idea of a literary text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.

ELA.8.3

Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.

ELA.8.4

Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

ELA.8.5

Determine a central idea of an informational text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.

ELA.8.6

Analyze how an informational text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).

Grade-9

ELA.9.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the literary text.

ELA.9.2

Determine a theme or central idea of a literary text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the literary text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the literary text.

ELA.9.3

Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a literary text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme.

ELA.9.4

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the informational text.

ELA.9.5

Determine a central idea of an informational text and analyze its development over the course of the informational text, including how it is developed and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the informational text.

ELA.9.6

Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events in an informational text, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them.

Grade-10

ELA.10.1

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the literary text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, recognizing when the text leaves matters uncertain.

ELA.10.2

Determine two themes or central ideas of a literary text and analyze in detail their development over the course of the literary text, including how they emerge and are shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the literary text.

ELA.10.3

Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a literary text, interact with other characters, and affect the plot or develop the theme.

ELA.10.4

Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the informational text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the informational text, recognizing when the text leaves matters uncertain.

ELA.10.5

Determine two central ideas of an informational text and analyze their development over the course of the informational text, including how they emerge and are shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the informational text.

ELA.10.6

Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of complex ideas or events in informational texts, including the order in which the points are made, how they are developed, and how they interact.

ELA.9.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the literary text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place or how it sets a formal or informal tone).

ELA.9.8

Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a literary text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing or flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.

ELA.9.9

Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.

ELA.9.10

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).

ELA.9.11

Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of an informational text (e.g., a section or chapter).

ELA.9.12

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in an informational text and analyze how the author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

Grade-8

ELA.8.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a literary text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.

ELA.8.8

Compare and contrast the structure of two or more literary texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.

ELA.8.9

Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor in a literary text.

ELA.8.10

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.

ELA.8.11

Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in an informational text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept.

ELA.8.12

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in an informational text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.

Grade-9

ELA.9.7

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the literary text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place or how it sets a formal or informal tone).

ELA.9.8

Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a literary text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing or flashbacks) create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.

ELA.9.9

Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.

ELA.9.10

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).

ELA.9.11

Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of an informational text (e.g., a section or chapter).

ELA.9.12

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in an informational text and analyze how the author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

Grade-10

ELA.10.7

Determine the meaning of multiple-meaning words and phrases as they are used in a literary text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place or how it sets a formal or informal tone).

ELA.10.8

Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a literary text, order events within it (e.g., parallel plots), and manipulate time (e.g., pacing or flashbacks) contribute to its overall structure and create such effects as mystery, tension, or surprise.

ELA.10.9

Analyze and defend a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from outside the United States, drawing on a wide reading of world literature.

ELA.10.10

Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in an informational text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze and defend the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g. how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).

ELA.10.11

Analyze and defend in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of an informational text (e.g., a section or chapter).

ELA.10.12

Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in an informational text and evaluate how the author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.

ELA.9.13

Analyze the representation, in a literary text, of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).

ELA.9.14

Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific literary work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible, or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).

ELA.9.15

Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums of informational texts (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

ELA.9.16

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in an informational text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

ELA.9.17

Analyze influential U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address or The Gettysburg Address), including how they address related themes and concepts.

Grade-8

ELA.8.13

Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors.

ELA.8.14

Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works, such as the Bible, including describing how the material is transformed in the modern work (e.g., how a modern interpretation of a Shakespearean text draws from the original text).

ELA.8.15

Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, and/or multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea

ELA.8.16

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in an informational text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

ELA.8.17

Analyze a case in which two or more informational texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.

Grade-9

ELA.9.13

Analyze the representation, in a literary text, of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).

ELA.9.14

Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific literary work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible, or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).

ELA.9.15

Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums of informational texts (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

ELA.9.16

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in an informational text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

ELA.9.17

Analyze influential U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g., Washington’s Farewell Address or The Gettysburg Address), including how they address related themes and concepts.

Grade-10

ELA.10.13

Analyze the representation, in a literary text, of a subject or a key scene in two or more different artistic mediums, including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment and why (e.g., Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus).

ELA.10.14

Analyze and defend how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific literary work (e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible, or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare).

ELA.10.15

Analyze and defend various accounts of a subject told in different mediums of informational texts (e.g., a person’s life story in both print and multimedia), determining which details are emphasized in each account.

ELA.10.16

Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims and counterclaims in an informational text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning.

ELA.10.17

Analyze and defend influential U.S. documents of historical and literary significance (e.g. Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech or King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”), including how they address related themes and concepts.

ELA.9.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grade 9-10 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

ELA.9.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend nonfiction and other informational texts in the grades 9-10 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade-8

ELA.8.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of grades 6–8 text complexity range independently and proficiently.

ELA.8.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend nonfiction and other informational texts at the high end of the grades 6–8 text complexity range independently and proficiently.

Grade-9

ELA.9.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grade 9-10 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

ELA.9.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend nonfiction and other informational texts in the grades 9-10 text complexity range proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

Grade-10

ELA.10.18

By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, independently and proficiently, at the high end of the grade 9-10 text complexity range.

ELA.10.19

By the end of the year, read and comprehend nonfiction and other informational texts, independently and proficiently, at the high end of the grade 9-10 text complexity range.

Writing

ELA.9.20

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

  • Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
  • Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

ELA.9.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

  • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures and/or tables), and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  • Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

ELA.9.22

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

  • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences events and/or characters.
  • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
  • Use precise words and phrases, effective details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Grade-8

ELA.8.20

Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

  • Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
  • Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
  • Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

ELA.8.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

  • Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts or tables), and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
  • Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

ELA.8.22

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

  • Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  • Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events.
  • Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

Grade-9

ELA.9.20

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

  • Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
  • Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

ELA.9.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

  • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures and/or tables), and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  • Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

ELA.9.22

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

  • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences events and/or characters.
  • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole.
  • Use precise words and phrases, effective details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

Grade-10

ELA.10.20

Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.

  • Introduce precise, knowledgeable claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  • Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
  • Use a variety of words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

ELA.10.21

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

  • Introduce a topic; organize complex ideas, concepts, and information to analyze important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures and/or tables), and multimedia when useful to aid comprehension.
  • Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, significant, and sufficient facts; extended definitions; concrete details, quotations, or other information; and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  • Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts.
  • Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic.
  • Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline.
  • Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).

ELA.10.22

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

  • Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem, situation, or observation, establishing one or multiple point(s) of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; create a smooth progression of experiences or events.
  • Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, reflection, and multiple plot lines, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
  • Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build upon a particular outcome.
  • Use precise words and phrases, effective details, and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences, events, setting, and/or characters.
  • Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced, observed, or resolved over the course of the narrative.

ELA.9.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.9.24

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of all Language standards up to and including grade 9.)

ELA.9.25

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

Grade-8

ELA.8.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.8.24

With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of the Language standards up to and including grade 8.)

ELA.8.25

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing, present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently, and interact and collaborate with others.

Grade-9

ELA.9.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.9.24

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of all Language standards up to and including grade 9.)

ELA.9.25

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.

Grade-10

ELA.10.23

Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Text Types and Purposes.)

ELA.10.24

Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of all Language standards up to and including grade 10.)

ELA.10.25

Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically in response to ongoing feedback.

ELA.9.26

Conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

ELA.9.27

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation (e.g., MLA or APA).

ELA.9.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 9 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible, or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
  • Apply grade 9 Reading standards to nonfiction and other informational texts (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).

Grade-8

ELA.8.26

Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

ELA.8.27

Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation (e.g., MLA or APA).

ELA.8.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works, such as the Bible, including describing how the material is transformed in the modern work (e.g., how a modern interpretation of a Shakespearean text draws from the original text)”).
  • Apply grade 8 Reading standards to nonfiction and other informational texts (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced”).

Grade-9

ELA.9.26

Conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

ELA.9.27

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation (e.g., MLA or APA).

ELA.9.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 9 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible, or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
  • Apply grade 9 Reading standards to nonfiction and other informational texts (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).

Grade-10

ELA.10.26

Conduct short, as well as more sustained, research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

ELA.10.27

Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in terms of task, purpose, and audience and in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation (e.g., MLA or APA).

ELA.10.28

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

  • Apply grade 10 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g., how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”).
  • Apply grade 10 Reading standards to nonfiction and other informational texts (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”).

ELA.9.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade-8

ELA.8.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade-9

ELA.9.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Grade-10

ELA.10.29

Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.

Speaking & Listening

ELA.9.30

Initiate and effectively participate in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 9 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly and persuasively.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
  • Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, or presentation of alternate views); set clear goals, deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
  • Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
  • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; summarize points of agreement and disagreement and, when warranted, qualify or justify views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

ELA.9.31

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and/or orally), evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.

ELA.9.32

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

Grade-8

ELA.8.30

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
  • Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
  • Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas.
  • Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, qualify or justify views in light of the evidence presented.

ELA.8.31

Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and/or orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, or political) behind its presentation.

ELA.8.32

Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence; identify when irrelevant evidence is introduced.

Grade-9

ELA.9.30

Initiate and effectively participate in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 9 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly and persuasively.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
  • Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, or presentation of alternate views); set clear goals, deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
  • Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
  • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; summarize points of agreement and disagreement and, when warranted, qualify or justify views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

ELA.9.31

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and/or orally), evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.

ELA.9.32

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

Grade-10

ELA.10.30

Initiate and effectively participate in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing ideas clearly and persuasively.

  • Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
  • Work with peers to set rules for democratic, collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views); establish clear goals, deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
  • Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others’ perspectives into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
  • Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives; analyze points of agreement and disagreement and, when warranted, qualify or justify views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.

ELA.10.31

Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, and/or orally), evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source in order to make decisions and solve problems.

ELA.10.32

Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, assessing any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.

ELA.9.33

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

ELA.9.34

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

ELA.9.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 9 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Grade-8

ELA.8.33

Present claims and findings, emphasizing significant points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound, valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

ELA.8.34

Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.

ELA.8.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 8 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Grade-9

ELA.9.33

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

ELA.9.34

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

ELA.9.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 9 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Grade-10

ELA.10.33

Present information, findings, and supporting evidence, conveying a clear and distinct perspective, such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.

ELA.10.34

Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest.

ELA.10.35

Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 10 Language standards for specific expectations.)

Language

ELA.9.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Use parallel structure.
  • Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, participial, prepositional, and absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent, noun, relative, and adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations

ELA.9.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
  • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
  • Spell correctly.

Grade-8

ELA.8.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, and infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.

ELA.8.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, or dash) to indicate a pause or break.
  • Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission.
  • Spell correctly.

Grade-9

ELA.9.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Use parallel structure.
  • Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, participial, prepositional, and absolute) and clauses (independent, dependent, noun, relative, and adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations

ELA.9.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses.
  • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
  • Spell correctly.

Grade-10

ELA.10.36

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

  • Use various types of phrases (noun, verb, adjectival, adverbial, participial, prepositional, or absolute) and clauses (independent and dependent; noun, relative, and adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations.

ELA.10.37

Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

  • Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation.
  • Spell correctly.

ELA.9.38

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

  • Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook or APA Handbook) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.

Grade-8

ELA.8.38

Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

  • Use verbs in the active and passive voice (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action).
  • Use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact).
  • Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.

Grade-9

ELA.9.38

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

  • Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook or APA Handbook) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.

Grade-10

ELA.10.38

Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.

  • Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e.g., MLA Handbook or APA Handbook) appropriate for the discipline and writing type.

ELA.9.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 9 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph or text or a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical, advocate, or advocacy).
  • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
  • Verify the initial determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

ELA.9.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism or oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
  • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

ELA.9.41

Acquire and accurately use general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college- and career-readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade-8

ELA.8.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph or a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, or secede).
  • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
  • Verify the initial determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

ELA.8.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, and/or puns) in context.
  • Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words.
  • Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, or resolute).

ELA.8.41

Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade-9

ELA.9.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 9 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph or text or a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical, advocate, or advocacy).
  • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, its part of speech, or its etymology.
  • Verify the initial determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

ELA.9.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism or oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
  • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

ELA.9.41

Acquire and accurately use general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college- and career-readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Grade-10

ELA.10.39

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

  • Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph or text or a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  • Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e.g., analyze, analysis, analytical, advocate, or advocacy).
  • Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, and/or thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning, part of speech, or etymology.
  • Verify the initial determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

ELA.10.40

Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

  • Interpret figures of speech (e.g., euphemism or oxymoron) in context and analyze their role in the text.
  • Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations.

ELA.10.41

Acquire and accurately use general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college- and career-readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

Teaching Resources